My Vision of Leadership:

The main objective of this blog is to reflect my perception about leadership, incline towards portrayal of personal qualities, desires and ambitions. The work will even highlight reviews and feedback from the peers, pointing out my strengths and areas of development. It will further demonstrate an example of well-recognised leader who inspires and motivates me.


‘‘A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way and shows the way’’ (Maxwell, 2016). My personal vision of leadership is to inspire others to think and learn more in order to achieve more. I think a leader is one who takes the blame for a failure, and credits everyone on success. Coming from a high context culture, with existence of unequal distribution of power and authoritative style of leadership in organisations, my vision of leadership is inclined towards a change where democratic style of leadership is valued. A proactive role of subordinates in decision making process contributes to development of an organisation (Mullins, 2013).  This involves equal opportunity of participation and thoughts, with transparency within the central hierarchy. My personal understanding of democratic leadership will guide a way forward towards elimination of politics, communication gap and unequal distribution of powers within an organisation.

Yukl describes leadership as a process of influencing others to lead a way forward (Yukl, 2010). I would like to outline how ‘M005LON- Leading in A Changing World’ aided to my knowledge, in regard of Yukl’s statement. Knowledgecast and seminars inclined towards numerous class activities and case studies helped me in understanding key points of leadership, described as follows:

  1. A leader should emphasise strengths of subordinates, and allocate individual roles and tasks accordingly.
  2. Involvement of subordinates in decision making process can help in generation of new ideas and innovations.
  3. Buckingham (Buckingham, 2005) (What great managers do) informed me about importance of tweaking roles, in order to capitalise uniqueness of every individual.
  4. Appreciation of subordinates makes them valued and develops self-esteem.
  5. Virtual teams and meetings can help in overcoming cultural differences, resolving conflicts, resulting in better decision making process and expression of opinions.
  6. Effectiveness of different leadership/management approach at workplace.



The above points from knowledgecast and seminar sessions aided to my understanding of leadership, and further helped me in developing a vision to achieve desired goals and ambitions.

Steve Jobs, the co-founder and former chairman and CEO of Apple Inc. was truly an inspirational leader. His democratic leadership style reflected involvement of subordinates at a centralised level, with encouragement of discussion and ideas from peers.


The co-founder was responsible enough for his failures, and never blamed his subordinates for let-downs and disappointments. His ethical leadership traits are evident with product oriented goals, everything else secondary (Forbes, 2016). His vision reflected development of enduring company with subordinated inclined towards manufacturing of great products, not profits. Even though his personality reflected impatience, cantankerous and toughness, he used to encourage people around realising their contribution to the organisation. To develop a personal relationship with fellow subordinates, Jobs used to encourage face to face meetings developing a sense of belonging and value amongst the co-workers. ‘Stay Hungry- Stay Foolish’ is a famous quote from Jobs inspiring his followers to aim for innovation, bounding no invention is permanent and change drives the society moving. One example of Jobs adaptability skills is training of 12 years to overcome and develop lack of empathy and effective leadership skills (Isaacson, 2012). The former chairman even engaged in interpersonal conversation with subordinates, in order to enquire about their personal lives, families and upbringing of children (Isaacson, 2012). The personal traits and characteristics reflected by Steve Jobs inform me of importance of communication, regardless what position, company or job-profile you are working for. His vision and ethics at work are an inspiration for millions, including me.

The following video demonstrates how Steve Jobs inspired and motivated people, with his effective leadership skills:

According to Sadler, Peer feedback implements towards development of self-appreciation and adds to management of self-awareness and learning (Sadler, 1989). Liu and Carless believe peer assessment is a quicker and more accessible, avoiding anxiety and antipathy involved in tutor based feedback (Liu & Carless, 2006).


The seminar activities from ‘M005- Leading in a Changing World’ involved each group member’s appointment as a group leader, leading to peer review and feedback. The feedback received from my colleagues suggest traits and qualities of a democratic leader. My team members appreciated how I allocated the work, in regard of individual strengths and uniqueness. The feedback forms received even highlights appreciation of opinions from peers, organisational skills, listening abilities and consideration of available options and opinions. One my colleague condemned unequal distribution of work, which can be marked as my area of development. Another area of development, realised by my colleagues is lack of appreciation and acknowledgment. I will work harder, and get Mullins key factors of democratic leadership into consideration, in order to overcome such weaknesses and transform same as my strengths. The feedback received was informative, positive and encouraging, and will contribute and add value to my learning.


I aim on developing mentioned skills further, while pursuing my MBA. The skills particularly to be focused on counts active listening, equal distribution of power, effective communication and gratitude towards peer group. This skills can be developed with active participation in class activities, reading wider range of books (leadership) and in-class presentations.






Buckingham, M. (2005) ‘What great managers do’ Harvard Business Review 83 (3), 70-79

Issacson, W. (2012). The Real Leadership Lessons of Steve Jobs. Harvard Business Review.

Liu, N. and Carless, D. (2006) Peer feedback: the learning element of peer assessment.Teaching in Higher Education, 11(3), pp.279-290.

Mullins, L.J. (2013) Management and Organisational Behaviour. 10th edn. Harlow: Pearson

Sadler, D.R. (1989) Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems,Instructional Science,18 (2), 119-144.

Yukl, G. (2010) Leadership in Organizations. 7th edn. Harlow: Pearson

Zenger, J. (2016). Forbes Welcome. [online] Forbes.com. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/jackzenger/2013/08/22/the-big-lesson-about-leadership-from-steve-jobs/#7d5b88766a94 [Accessed 19 Jun. 2016].


Leadership & Change

The main aim of this blog is to evaluate and assess Mullin’s statement “Change is nothing new and a simple fact of life. Some people actively thrive on new challenges and constant change, while others prefer the comfort of the status quo and strongly resist any change’’. (Mullins, 2010) In order to highlight this statement further, I would like to cite a quote from leading website Prosci ‘Change is a part of your organisation’ (Prosci, 2016), which I believe is important to acknowledge new initiatives, enhance performance, increase revenues and gain competitive advantage. I agree with Mullin’s first half of the statement, realising innovation and modernisation contributes in moving and leading forward. According to Alejandro Russell, transformation and advancements helps in efficiency and productivity, not possible without embracing latest technological trends and developments (Russell, 2016). Factors like customer needs, economic crisis, growth opportunities and cultural differences drive a change within an organisation (Richards, 2016).


Change is constant, drawing equally positive and negative reactions from different personalities. People who are driven by status, income, respect, authority and challenges are blossomed and enthusiastic about implemented modifications and challenges. A report from citehr further demonstrates how behaviour and psychograph affects individuals on implied changes. Individuals who possess traits such as active listening, compromise, sense of humour, enthusiasm, creative and positivity respond to change in a positive way (citehr.com, 2016).  Whereas Rosabeth Kanter cites competence, increased work, loss of face and control and uncertainty as major reasons why people resist changes (Kanter, 2012). Not only individuals, but organisations resist changes too. Culture within an organisation, stability, past contracts and agreements and high investment are some key factors behind organisational opposition to change (Mullins, 2013: 717-8). I consider countries with high context culture avoid change and transformation, implementing things personally affecting their status and reputation. These countries portray a higher level of uncertainty and insecurity, considering lack of knowledge and uncompromising attitude of people.

The uploaded video by Robert Harris highlights key factors of resistance by people towards change:

I was fascinated by this particular article by Robert Swain, discussing importance and reasons organisations need to change.

In order to aim generated opportunities and maximum profit margins, organisations need to embrace change avoiding internal or external pressures. This can aid towards overcoming performance gaps and cultural differences (Swain, 2011). This module made me believe that a good leadership style can succeed in bringing a change, aiding towards development of subordinates and organisation.

Management and leadership styles, morals and principles have a relevant impact on how people embrace changes or resist it.  Authoritative style of management or leadership often fails to implement changes, with people rejecting commands or directions challenging their roles and positions in an organisation. Democratic leaders who involve subordinates in decision making process, make the staff feel valued, involvement and active participation, free opinions and ideas are successful in bringing change for good (Mullins, 2010).


John Kotter invented a very useful tool called Kotter’s 8 step process, leaders and managers can implement at their place of work to seek successful organisational change.


(Source: Kotter J., 2016)

1.   Create sense of urgency

The first step involves identification of forthcoming threats and opportunities, in order of developing a facilitator for change. This may involve inside and outside support of stakeholders.


2.   Formation of coalition

Formation of efficient leaders, who possess a vision with capabilities and strengths.


3.   Create a Vision

Shape the vision, in order to achieve the desired goals with effective techniques and performances.


4.   Communicate the Vision

Outshine the change desired, with effective means of communication and bonding.


5.   Remove Obstacles

Effective vision and delivery of thoughts can tailor resistance, reward            people willing to contribute

6.   Generate Short-term Wins

Implementation of successful change can motivate those resisting it, early victory will portray effectiveness and performance.


7.   Sustain Acceleration

Recruitment of staff who support the vision and change, credibility to policies and visions against the vision.


The following link explains the demonstrated tool in an effective and simple manner:

Advantages of the model:

  1. Easy to achieve, with proper communication and information.
  2. Tailored according to numerous hierarchies.

Disadvantages of the model:

  1. Linearity of the model can misguide, leading to failure.
  2. One time process, with impossibility of changing directions.

The above concepts about leadership and theories bounded with it, prove as a disagreement with Mullins second half of the statement i.e. ‘‘It is all down to the personality of the individual and there is little management can do about resistance to change” (Mullins 2010: 753). I consider proper guidance from leaders and managers, implementation of effective models at workplace and participation amongst the subordinates, personality of individuals can be bring a successful change. I personally have faith in Kurt Lewin‘s model of change management model, which can help in overcoming uncertainty and insecurity contributing towards resistance of change. The three step model productively raises awareness about necessity of change, transmission and stability (Levasseur, 2016).


(Source: Levasseur, 2016)


Once such example of effective leadership and change is Marrisa Mayer’s appointment as Yahoo’s CEO. With her democratic style of leadership, she has been successful in employee engagement and discussion at higher level. One example of her democratic leadership style is encouragement of employees to test new products and services. This made the employees feel valued and developed a sense of belonging in the organisation. Being a part of the decision making process boosted energy and confidence amongst the subordinates. An evidence of this successful change was increased stock values and quarterly earnings. The employees gracefully embraced their new leader, with availability of 560 employee- focused initiatives to enhance and support self-esteem and confidence (Troyani, 2014).

The video below demonstrates how Marrisa Mayer embraces people and brainpower at Yahoo:

Another successful example of democratic leadership and change is of Ricardo Semler, from the case study ‘A revolutionary model of leadership’. Semler was successful in engaging subordinates at a central level, with effective dismissal of all departments and positions. He rather allowed the subordinates to make important decisions, without any limitation of controls or powers. He encouraged the employees to choose their personal job role and duties, inclined towards personal skills, abilities and interests.  This resulted in increased revenues and profits, which he distributed amongst the subordinates equally. This revolutionary change was accepted my majority of his subordinates, who were rewarded with profit sharing and stock futures in exchange (Maddux, 2014).

The above examples and demonstrated frameworks helped in aiding my knowledge about leadership and change. The key points to pick out of this blog will be effective communication by leaders and participation or involvement of subordinates in organisation can minimise resistance to change. In my choice of industry i.e. retail marketing, feedback from peers and effective communication of vision and change can reduce the resistance level.  This can encourage enthusiasm and creativity amongst the colleagues, working in support of the organisation.


Citehr.com. (2016). CHANGE -WHY PEOPLE ACCEPT IT/ WHY PEOPLE RESIST IT | CiteHR. [online] Available at: http://www.citehr.com/2893-change-why-people-accept-why-people-resist.html [Accessed 17 Jun. 2016].

Kotter, J. (2016). The 8-Step Process for Leading Change – Kotter International. [online] Kotter International. Available at: http://www.kotterinternational.com/the-8-step-process-for-leading-change/ [Accessed 17 Jun. 2016].

Kanter, R. (2012). Ten Reasons People Resist Change. [online] Harvard Business Review. Available at: https://hbr.org/2012/09/ten-reasons-people-resist-chang [Accessed 17 Jun. 2016].

Levasseur, R. (2016). People Skills: Change Management Tool- Lewin’s Change Model. [online] Available at: http://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/abs/10.1287/inte. [Accessed 17 Jun. 2016].

Maddux, W. (2014). Ricardo Semler: A Revolutionary Model of Leadership. North America: INSEAD, pp.2-13.

Mullins, L. J. (2013) Management and Organisational Behaviour. 10th edn. Harlow: Pearson

Prosci.com. (2016). The Why & Importance of Change Management | Prosci. [online] Available at: https://www.prosci.com/change-management/why-change-management [Accessed 17 Jun. 2016].

Russell, A. (2016). Importance of Change in an Organization. [online] Our Everyday Life. Available at: http://oureverydaylife.com/importance-change-organization-4297.html [Accessed 17 Jun. 2016].

Swaim, R. (2016). Nine Reasons Organizations Need To Change | BPM, Lean Six Sigma & Continuous Process Improvement | Process Excellence Network. [online] Processexcellencenetwork.com. Available at: http://www.processexcellencenetwork.com/organizational-change/columns/why-organizations-change-and-what-they-can-change [Accessed 17 Jun. 2016].

Troyani, L. (2016). 3 Examples of Organizational Change and Why They Got It Right. [online] Tinypulse.com. Available at: https://www.tinypulse.com/blog/3-examples-of-organizational-change-and-why-they-got-it-right [Accessed 17 Jun. 2016].


Most effective Leadership & Management Styles & approaches’

The main aim of this blog is to inform the readers about different leadership and management styles, evaluating the likenesses and differences of approaches. It even seeks to highlight effective examples, in order to develop a better understanding amongst the viewers.


According to Mullin ‘Management is an art of getting work done by people with enforcement of individual effort’ (Mullin, 2010), whereas Leadership involves influencing and motivating people in order to generate proficient output with their own capabilities and resources (Yukl, 2010). Are managers effective leaders? Or leaders successful managers? Not always, depending on their personal traits and characteristics. The only common goal between managers and leaders is accomplishment of desired goals and targets.

The video below will compare and contrast the major differences between management and leadership, and aid your knowledge about the different approaches and styles:

                                                                          Manager V/S Leader:

Manager Leader
Administrates Innovates
Maintains Develops
Controls Inspires
Imitates Originates
‘Does things right’ ‘Does the right thing’

According to Roger Bauer, CEO of SMB consulting, mutual respect aids in building a relationship with subordinates. Not everyone possesses traits of leadership like Steve Jobs and Jack Welch, but basic understanding of mentioned factors can help in building a fruitful relationship with subordinates:

  1. Train in Private, Praise in Public

A leader, often looked up as a role model or inspiration should guide assistants in private. This will avoid development of a superiority complex and develop valuable relationship. Applause of hard work in public will help in boosting subordinates confidence, resulting in value and importance for the organisation.

  1. Be Fair above all

No employee appreciates discrimination at workplace. Favouritism or preference of selective employees will affect effectiveness and output of the organisation, and demoralise employees.

  1. You don’t know it all

Make subordinates feel welcome, by encouraging ideas and opinions. Every individual is unique, and may have something innovative to add value and importance for the company.

  1. Flexibility

Implementation of different solutions, depending on complexity of situation. Inactive communication and access can disappoint subordinates, and result in communication gap.

The above approaches can help in development of a successful relationship, inclined towards furtherance of subordinates. This links to CMI outlook quoting ‘there is no single ideal, as the best approach may vary according to circumstances and individual characteristics (CMI 2013).’ I agree to the quoted statement, since approaches may vary, depending on the density and complexity of circumstances. A manager/leader should be spontaneous enough, and tailor its actions relating to the demand of situations. Personal characteristics and traits may count, seen in result of such approaches.


(Source: Management-eBooks, 2016)

Hersey and Blanchard situational theory supports this statement, suggesting no single optimal approach for dense situations. The theory highlights how leaders/managers adjust their approaches and management styles, inclined towards objectives and maturity. This polishes the efficiency level of followers, leading to better output and productivity.


(Source: Robert Jr Graham, 2016)


Peter Bucker, even referred as management guru claims 5 principles of management in regard of this statement. His theory supports no optimal methodology for problem resolution, and every manager has to modify by implementing quoted principles.

The image below demonstrates Bucker’s principles of management:


(Source: Sherwin, 2016)

Samuel Walton, founder of Walmart is an example of democratic leader.  The man, who is a role model for millions is sole responsible of building Walmart from a single store to the largest corporation in America. A survey involving 7000 executives from Harvard Business School rewarded Samuel Walton as the greatest leader of the 20th century (Fastcompany, 2016).


One example of his democratic leadership style is availability of Walmart Stock Options at discounted price, for benefit and development of his staff members. He encouraged concepts and thinking of his staff, and treated them as associates to enjoy Walmart’s success. He believed valuing of employees contributes to your personal success. His rule book to success focused on communication, motivation and listening to everyone from the team, in order to generate revolutionary ideas.

The video highlights Samuel Walton’s value and respect for his subordinators, by former CEO of Walmart Stores- Don Soderquist:

Another inspirational leader I personally admire is Alan Mullaly, CEO of Ford Motor Company. The stimulating leader was successful in resorting the company, by avoiding bankruptcy and bailouts. He effectively distributed profit amongst the workers, worth $47,000 each in his first year of enrolment. He realised the value of communication, and chose to eat in cafeteria to develop an effective conversation with subordinates. He dismissed the ranking system in the corporation, in order to generate togetherness and attachment amongst the workers. The CEO effectively implemented team-based leadership and cross-functional communication with establishment of ‘People first, respect, listen etc.’ rules. His weekly plan even accommodated dedicated time to ‘Talk and Listen’ to analyse current challenges and future potentials (Rappleye, 2015).

His speech at Stanford University is an example of his productive thoughts on leadership and management:

An ideal person I would like to be led by would be a combination of both, effective leader and operative manager. I will appreciate if the leader/manager encourages my thoughts and contribution, it will motivate me to work hard and add value to the organisation. A hint of obligation and appreciation, towards my work will make me feel valued and respected. These factors will develop a sense of belonging within myself, pushing me to go out of the way and contribute towards businesses’ success. The qualities I personally seek in the person I’m led or managed by should be transparency, accessible, motivating, inspiring and impartial.



Bauer, (2016). 6 Tips for Managing Subordinates by Roger Bauer. [online] Evancarmichael.com. Available at: http://www.evancarmichael.com/library/roger-bauer/6-Tips-for-Managing-Subordinates.html [Accessed 14 Jun. 2016].

Fast Company. (2005). Greatest Business Leaders of the 20th Century. [online] Available at: http://www.fastcompany.com/53477/greatest-business-leaders-20th-century [Accessed 14 Jun. 2016].

Free-management-ebooks.com. (2016). Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory. [online] Available at: http://www.free-management-ebooks.com/faqld/leadtheory-06.htm [Accessed 14 Jun. 2016].

Graham, R. (2015). Situational Leadership (SLII) Theory. [online] Robert JR Graham. Available at: https://robertjrgraham.com/situational-leadership-slii-theory/ [Accessed 14 Jun. 2016].

Leadership With You. (2016). Sam Walton Leadership. [online] Available at: http://www.leadership-with-you.com/sam-walton-leadership.html [Accessed 14 Jun. 2016].

Lindsay-sherwin.co.uk. (2016). Peter Drucker. [online] Available at: http://www.lindsay-sherwin.co.uk/guide_team_leadership/html_leadership_styles/5_peter_drucker.htm [Accessed 14 Jun. 2016].

Mullins, L.J. (2010) Management and Organizational Behaviour (9th edn). Harlow: Pearson Education

Rappleye, E. (2016). 5 lessons from the leadership of Ford CEO Alan Mulally. [online] Beckershospitalreview.com. Available at: http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-management-administration/5-lessons-from-the-leadership-of-ford-ceo-alan-mulally.html [Accessed 14 Jun. 2016].




The challenge of managing diverse teams


Every individual is unique, and so is their nature and portrayed characteristics. This may sound simple, but is bounded by numerous factors affecting productivity of an organisation. In order to manage a diverse workforce, it is important to understand visible and non-visible factors of every human being. Approaches like ‘one-size-fit’ does not accomplish success and opportunities. Hence, it is essential to appreciate diversity and challenges confined to it.


The chancellor committee of University of California outlines diversity as: Differences in race, culture, religion, abilities, age and heritage result in variety of perceptions, insights and experiences (UCSF, 2016). Recognition of   cultural values and identification of challenges can add standard to business. Malcom Forbes supports this key issue by stating ‘diversity is the art of thinking independently together’ (ACAS, 2016). In order to foster creativity and generate innovation, it is very important for a business to exploit diversity at workplace. If successful, it can over shine as a competitive advantage and target distinctive clients.

To gain a depth knowledge and awareness about diversity, it is very important to study associated models and theories. Hofstede’s theory of Cultural Dimensions will summarise key factors inclined towards diversity.


Power Distance:

The unequal bond and distribution of power amongst people, mostly dominant by superiors is called power distance (Asha, 2016). This particular dimension of Hofstede’s cultural dimension is evident in countries with high cultural context.  For example, India a country with high culture context does not allow staff members to speak or express before their seniors or superiors.

Individualism- Collectivism

The individuality or Social integration of groups, manipulating acquaintances and decision making skills of certain individuals or groups. Counties with low cultural context portray individualism, whereas collectivism is highly visible in eastern countries. For example, infamous expression ‘The American Dream’ is a clear representation of individualism, where people centrally work for personal achievements and standard of living.

Uncertainty Avoidance

A sense of discomfort, in regard to uncertain and indistinct situations in the society represent uncertainty avoidance of members belonging to a particular society. For example, Germany minimises uncertainty by implementation of plans, rubrics and regulations with high uncertainty avoidance score of 65 (Clearlyculture, 2016).


(Source: Clearly Cultural, 2016)

Masculinity- Femininity

The social dimension portraying distribution of morals and values between the sexes. Feminism is highly visible and valuable amongst countries with low cultural context, where eastern countries with high cultural context are inclined towards masculinity. For example, Women do not enjoy the same rights as men in Saudi Arabia (Driving).


The video outlines explains Hofstede’s cultural dimensions in a very pretentious manner:

There has been a noticeable change, in terms of diversity over the past years. Multinational companies and other industries realise the value of immediate response, only applicable with existence of diverse workforce. Here are some magnetisms, attracting such companies towards diversity:

  1. According to John Greenberg, an organisation with diverse workforce is more successful in attaining global clients, with variety of standpoints and skills (Multiculturaladvantage, 2016).
  2. A company can portray positive image with diverse workforce, resulting in increased reputation and limited lawsuits against the firm.
  3. Diversity at workplace results in higher efficiency, resulting in increased revenues and return on investment.
  4. A wider perception and problem solving skills is evident in organisation, with involvement of broader opinions and sentiments.

As they say, nothing great is achieved easy. This implements on diversity at workplace and challenges bounded to it:

  1. Ineffective communication and cultural gap can result in ineffective teamwork and disorganised strategy
  2. Misunderstanding and interpretation of thoughts and ideas can lead to internal disputes and differences.

Apple, valued as number one brand on Forbes, is the best example to encourage diversity at workplace. The company strongly appreciates employee diversity, in order to generate wider perceptions and sparkling innovations. At Apple, they believe ‘Great ideas push the world forward, and they can come from anywhere’ (Apple Diversity, 2016).  The company counts diversity as the top most priority, in order of to create opportunities and overcome generation gap.


(Source: Businessinsider, 2016)

A report from Business insider UK states 50% of the employees recruited by apple in the US consist Women, Black, and Hispanic or Native Americans. The business supports employment on 11,000 women globally, with expenses worth $650 million in 2015 (Businessinsider, 2016). The CEO even supports development of BME’s with support of Thurgood Marshall College. The vision statement supports diversity by demonstrating believe in equality, regardless age, sex, religion, believes etc.


(Source: Apple, 2016)

The video below supports importance and contribution of diversity at Apple:

Managing a diverse workforce can be quite challenging, involving communication, leading and inspiring a team from numerous backgrounds. Seminar activities aid and assist my personal understanding of working in a diverse workforce. Week 3 involved classic Lego action, encouraging communication and develop understanding as a group. This particular activity introduced me to wider perceptions from various team members and abundant initiatives to resolve an issue. The most important factor to learn from this activity was development of a mutual strategy, in order to overcome issues and barriers.




Acas.org.uk. (2016). Workplace snippets | Workplace stress tops absence league | Acas. [online] Available at: http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=3725 [Accessed 12 Jun. 2016].

Apple. (2016). Apple – Inclusion inspires innovation.. [online] Available at: http://www.apple.com/diversity/ [Accessed 12 Jun. 2016].

Asha.org. (2016). Examples of Cultural Dimensions. [online] Available at: http://www.asha.org/Practice-Portal/Professional-Issues/Cultural-Competence/Examples-of-Cultural-Dimensions/ [Accessed 12 Jun. 2016].

Clearlycultural.com. (2010). Uncertainty Avoidance | Clearly Cultural. [online] Available at: http://www.clearlycultural.com/geert-hofstede-cultural-dimensions/uncertainty-avoidance-index/ [Accessed 12 Jun. 2016].

Geert-hofstede.com. (2016). Dimensions – Geert Hofstede. [online] Available at: https://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html [Accessed 12 Jun. 2016].

just, A. (2016). Apple’s employee diversity improved in 2015 — but only just. [online] Business Insider. Available at: http://uk.businessinsider.com/apples-2015-diversity-report-2016-1 [Accessed 12 Jun. 2016].

Multiculturaladvantage.com. (2016). Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges and Solutions. [online] Available at: http://www.multiculturaladvantage.com/recruit/diversity/diversity-in-the-workplace-benefits-challenges-solutions.asp [Accessed 12 Jun. 2016].

Ucsfhr.ucsf.edu. (2016). Chapter 12: Managing Diversity in the Workplace. [online] Available at: http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/index.php/pubs/hrguidearticle/chapter-12-managing-diversity-in-the-workplace/ [Accessed 12 Jun. 2016].


Ethics in Leadership

Ethical Leadership:

Ethics has been derived from Greek terminology ‘Ethos’ denoting customs or values (Minkes, 1999). In order to ‘Lead in a changing World’, a brief understanding about Ethics in Leadership can centralise achievement and attainment of an organisation. Ethics incline a leader towards organisation’s value, principles and encouragement embracing organisation’s goals. Ethical Leadership can be related to ‘Doing the right thing’ unlike managers who ‘Do the things right’.


According to Kouzes and Posner, ethical leadership can be bounded with healing and revitalizing powers of love. A mutual relationship between a leader and followers can help in serving and supporting the association, in consideration of organisations growth and enlargement (Kouzes and Posner, 1992). Ethical Leadership can be highlighted with demonstration and implication of bounded models and theories.

Theorists and logicians base ethical leadership into two major ranges of study i.e. Deontological Ethics and Teleological Ethics.

Deontological Ethics derived from Greek words responsibility (Deon) and study (Logo) is inclined towards morals, values and standards of an individual, permitting or forbidding its decision making process regardless the consequences (BBC, 2016). A decent example to outline deontological ethics at workplace can be ‘Giving equal respect to all employees, irrespective the position’.


Teleological Ethics derived from Greek terminology telos (end) and logos (science), is opposite of deontological ethics and is liable of final decisions (Britannica, 2015). This theory ignores the method of achievement, and emphases on morality and importance of goal (Still, 2016).  Cost benefit analysis is an example in support of this ethical theory, outlining action may be considered ethical if profits overshadow involved costs.


(Source: Ferrell, 2002, p. 57)

4 V Model- Ethical Leadership



  1. Value- A leader should incline actions towards value, integrate interpersonal morals and ethics for an effective outcome.
  2. Vision- Overlook obvious factors for development and betterment of the community and society. Self- reflection supports widening of perceptions and opinions.
  3. Voice- In order of portrayal of visions, voice generates an appeal and engagement to urge audience.
  4. Virtue- Transformation of former V’s into goals, by doing what is considerable and accurate.

The above theories and outlined examples portray important characteristics of a good leader, in order to outshine and inspire followers. Respect and value is the base to any relationship, can result in motivation and inspiration for a successful leader.


One such person I believe reflects ethics and 4 V model style in his leadership style is Mr. Ratan Tata, former chairman of India’s largest conglomerate Tata Group. Mr. Tata masters the business environment with extraordinary ethics and human decisions, both in India and abroad. In order to avoid dubious economic policies and corrupt government, the former chairman of Tata Group invested heavily in emerging markets and outshined as first Indian company to benchmark generated revenue of $100 bn (Sadowsky, 2015). Acquisition of jaguar Land Rover is a notable milestone in Mr. Tata’s professional career. His personal statement reflects great vision and strong values, aiming equal opportunities, prosperity and unity.


A cordial relationship with his mentors (Amar Bose) and strong values at workplace prove him as an ethical leader. According to Tata, clarity and humility is the key to leadership. Possession of strong values and morals outshine Tata as a warm, considerate, inspiring and caring leader. A major share of equity (63%) of Tata group is help by Tata Trust, demonstrating former chairman’s concern for the society.

The uploaded video, demonstrating a speech by Mr. Ratan Tata outlines importance of ‘doing the right thing’ and ‘communication’ to emerge as a successful ethical leader. It even summaries transparency of morals and ethics can create wonders for the organisation.

As they say, power and influence are bounded with responsibilities. Some leaders fail to understand this and exploit relationships and associations for personal desires. Ted Stevens, a former legislator from Alaska was accused and found guilty of such allegations. The former senator was evident of accepting favours and donations, in purpose of allocating contracts and deals to close delegations (Konstigen, 2009). Former CEO of Volkswagen, Martin Winterkorn was involved in installation of corrupt software, which manipulated emissions of produced vehicles (Dishman, 2015).

Class activities inclined towards ethics, helped me in boosting my knowledge and raise an opinion about ethical leadership. ‘The Treasure Hunt’ involved working as a group, with people from high and low context cultures enhanced my perception about ethics in leadership. The activity focused on searching of numerous objects, by trail of clues upraised importance of communication and shared values amongst the group. One key fact ignored commonly is listening, a good leader should listen and overcome with best possibilities for the team. Implementation of ethics in leadership style can achieve wonders not only for an individual, but the organisation.




Bbc.co.uk. (2016). BBC – Ethics – Introduction to ethics: Duty-based ethics. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/duty_1.shtml [Accessed 8 Jun. 2016].

Ctb.ku.edu. (2016). Chapter 13. Orienting Ideas in Leadership | Section 8. Ethical Leadership | Main Section | Community Tool Box. [online] Available at: http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/leadership/leadership-ideas/ethical-leadership/main [Accessed 8 Jun. 2016].

Dishman, L. (2015). The 10 Best And Worst Leaders Of 2015. [online] Fast Company. Available at: http://www.fastcompany.com/3054777/lessons-learned/the-10-best-and-worst-leaders-of-2015 [Accessed 8 Jun. 2016].

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2016). teleological ethics | philosophy. [online] Available at: http://www.britannica.com/topic/teleological-ethics [Accessed 8 Jun. 2016].

Kostigen, T. (2016). The 10 most unethical people in business. [online] MarketWatch. Available at: http://www.marketwatch.com/story/the-10-most-unethical-people-in-business [Accessed 8 Jun. 2016].

Lee, K. and Seo, J. (2016). The Center for Ethical Leadership | Participedia. [online] Participedia.net. Available at: http://participedia.net/en/organizations/center-ethical-leadership [Accessed 8 Jun. 2016].

Ratan Tata. (2016). Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZfjIa96SUBo [Accessed 8 Jun. 2016].

Sadowsky, J. (2016). Ratan Tata: a shining example of business leadership in the third world. [online] John Sadowsky – Leadership & Storytelling. Available at: http://www.johnsadowsky.com/ratan-tata-a-shining-example-of-business-leadership-in-the-third-world/ [Accessed 8 Jun. 2016].




Easter Friday – Week 9

Out of difficulties grow miracles

-Jean de la Bruyere

Easter Friday and a long weekend to look forward to. A much needed break from assignments every student at Coventry University London Campus was looking forward to. Since there was no APS class this friday, this blog will outline the weekly activities from other modules and the seminar slides Deborah uploaded for Week 9.

The weekly slides for APS focused mainly on organizing and planning of coursework and final portfolio. The slides informed every individual the importance of planning and forecasting before starting any key activity. It acts as a break through point and helps in structuring the work. Step 2 was organizing, pick up the best study plan for you and implement it accordingly. Using your calendar plan helps you in keeping an update of your progress and meeting the deadline. Controlling and monitoring your implemented work helps you in achieving your goals. it was really kind of our seminar tutor to avail us with the slides so the class does not miss out on any important criteria.

Other module activities involved a quick feedback on assignment draft and focus on recommendations received for improvement. Other teachers even threw light on breakdown of rubric, and how to implement and apply theories for a quality submission.

10 more days until we all hand in our final portfolio and other individual assignments.Time to pull up our socks and get started with final submissions. Its amusing how we are already in week 9 and about to finish Term A.

Time Flies!

Dheeraj Chawla- 6953586




Career Planning- Week 10

The best preparation for tomorrow is doing your best today

-H. Jackson Brown, Jr.

Final Week of Term 1, full of stress, hard work and dedication. 3 assignments to hand in a week was killing every student on inside. But of course, everyone was happy about the progress and how we managed to sail through. The final session of APS was dedicated to career planning and orientation. Deborah, our seminar tutor enhanced our career oriented skills and informed us about the Careers and Student Employability assistance on campus. It brushed up our knowledge about risks involved in job seeking, entrepreneurship and numerous career aspirations.  Thanks to to Deborah and the assistance team on campus to guide us about the same and overcome the fear of starting up a new business.

The second half of class was dedicated to module overview and feedback. The class was handed in forms to fill, commend or condemn the module and comments for improving the module. It was not surprising how everyone was so positive about the module and keen on providing with their own suggestions. Cheers to our wonderful tutor, who is so helpful and always keen on answering if we have any questions. We would not be able to sail through this module without her guidance and assistance.

This particular module (APS) helped me in developing my personality and boosting my individual confidence. Taking up presentations before a large group, Approaching people for questionnaires, filming an advertisement and numerous activities involved brushed up my skills. I do realize the value of teamwork and time management after studying this module in my Term 1.

AND how can i forget writing a BLOG every week, it has developed my writing skills and boosted my confidence about my own techniques.


Dheeraj Chawla-6953586